The objective of the IS Phase is to determine how the process is being performed now and how well it is working in order to improve the process for the future.
Note: As you encounter unfamiliar terms throughout the IS Phase, refer to the Glossary of Terms Tool, the Toolkit for the IS Phase and the Summary of Key Roles described below for definitions.
There are several outcomes from the IS Phase:
- A Cross-Functional IS Process Map, including performance data, that describes the current process.
- A prioritized list of Disconnects associated with the current process.
- Data about the human performance system as it relates to the process to be improved.
- A profile of the current organizational and functional environment and culture as it relates to change capacity.
- A detailed listing of the individual stakeholders, or change targets, who may be required to do something differently as a result of the process changes.
- A set of design specifications to be followed when designing the new process.
- A set of "could-be" designs that describe possible designs for the new process.
- Steering Team alignment and approval to proceed.
Note: Use the Deliverables Checklist Tool to "check-off" each deliverable as you step through the IS Phase.
The key activities that take place during the IS Phase are:
- Educating the Steering Team and Design Team about the behavioral elements associated with change and the role they will play in enabling that change.
- Announcing to the entire organization the effort that is about to be undertaken, sharing the vision of the future direction of the organization and helping them understand how undertaking this effort will impact their actions and attitudes.
- Conducting interviews with members of the Design Team and others who have knowledge of the process as a basis for developing a draft map of the IS Process.
- Conducting surveys to collect feedback for understanding the organization's style and what obstacles may need to be addressed to ensure successful Implementation.
- Holding IS sessions to validate the draft map, identify Disconnects associated with the IS Process, and perform any other analysis required.
- Creating specifications for designing the new process and producing any other documentation resulting from the Design Team's analysis.
It will take total elapsed time of approximately 6 to 8 weeks to complete the IS Phase.
Note: Use the Process Improvement Project Management Map Tool to track project progress.
The Facilitator helps the Design Team keep focused by providing structure for its work and documenting the results. The Facilitator prepares a draft map of the current process based on interviews with those knowledgeable about the process. S/he then plans and conducts the IS sessions. Another primary role is to collect, record and summarize information on process performance.
The Design Team contributes during this stage by adhering to the interview schedule and handling "front-end" interview logistics. During the IS sessions, the Design Team confirms and identifies relationships, inputs, outputs, problems/issues and baseline measures. The team also develops SHOULD Design Specifications and "Could-Be" alternatives for the new process. After the IS sessions, the Design Team identifies linkages to other processes and reviews all IS documentation.
The Team Leader takes the lead role, working closely with the Facilitator, in all Design Team sessions. S/he leads the Design Team in doing the work.
The Process Owner provides access to interviewees, as needed, to ensure their attendance at the interviews. S/he will be involved in planning for Steering Team review meetings and should attend these meetings as well. The Process Owner also ensures that appropriate project support is provided. If a Process owner does not exist or has not been has not been identified, this role should be filled by a temporary or interim appointee.
The Steering Team reviews and monitors progress throughout the IS Phase and approves the SHOULD Design Specifications and "Could-Be" Designs.
The Executive Team also reviews and monitors progress throughout the IS Phase.
Stakeholders are advised of progress throughout the IS Phase.
The roles in the IS Phase are also broken out by step in the IS Phase Role/Responsibility Matrix.
- Waiting too long before starting communication to build organization-wide awareness about the effort.
- Not sharing the Project Vision with the organization so they understand what each person will need to do differently in the future.
- Failure to schedule time with the Steering Team or to define their roles and responsibilities and develop their knowledge on how and what they need to do to support the project effort and subsequent transformation.
- Failure to manage expectations of managers and Design Team members who may believe they can take on the additional responsibilities of a Design Team role without reducing the responsibilities of their current jobs.
- Lack of coordination in scheduling and completing interviews.
- Lack of strong management communication about the value of each interview and interviewee.
- Inadequate or inaccurate information provided during interviews.
- Strong "silo" behavior during IS Sessions.
- Failure to incorporate team-building events and change-specific educational interventions to help the process team develop and be effective as change advocates.
- Inability of the Design Team to transition from analysis (IS thinking) to design (SHOULD thinking).
- Not assigning your best and brightest people to participate as project team members.
- Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart, Second Edition, Geary A. Rummler and Alan P. Brache.
- Employee Handbook for Organizational Change — Price Pritchett.
- Teamwork — Price Pritchett.
- Firing Up Commitment during Organizational Change — Price Pritchett.